Periodicity.: January - June 2013
e-ISSN......: 2236-269X
Cover Image

Understanding Pharmaceutical Sustainable Supply chains - A Case Study Application

Ana Margarida Santos Bravo, José Crespo de Carvalho


A major paradigmchange is occurring in the pharmaceutical industry and an increase of returnsand recalls has been seen; although this industry in known for the continuoussearch for quality and regulatory compliance.Hence, in this paperwe combine the findings of previous literature reviews conducted by theauthors. Essentially, explore the links between pharmaceutical drugs quality,reverse logistics, and sustainability. A case study on a global corporationmanufacturing in the area of generic drug products has been selected andcorrelations are done with regards to returns and recalls from hospitalpharmacies, in particular. With this approach it is expected to link bothparties in the application of a quality by design risk management approach aswell as reduce variability and risk of noncompliance.


Recall; Reverse; Sustainability; Pharmaceutical Industry

Full Text:



ABBOUD, L.; HENSLYE, S. (2003). New prescription for drug makers: Update the Plant, The Wall Street Journal, September 3.

ALMOR, T.; TARBA, S.; BENJAMIN, H. (2009). Unmasking integration challenges: The case of Biogal’s acquisition by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, International Studies of Management and Challenges, v. 39, n. 3, Fall 2009, p. 32-52

AUTRY, C. (2005). Formalization of reverse logistics programs: A strategy for managing liberalized returns, International Marketing Management, v. 34, p. 749-757

AVELLANET, J. (2010). John Avellanet on holistic pharma compliance and quality, June 2010, Available at:

BIEDERMAN, D. (2010), Speeding Up, in Reverse, Journal of Commerce, New York.

BLACKBURN, J.; GUIDE, J.; DOUZA, G.; VAN WASSENHONE, L. (2004). “Reverse supply chains for commercial returns”, California Management Review, v. 46, n. 2, p. 6-22

BOWERSOX, D.; CLOSS, D. (1996). Logistical management: The integrated supply chain process, McGraw-Hill International Editions, London

BOWMAN, C.; AMBROSINI, V. (2000). Value creation versus value capture: towards a coherent definition of value integrity, British Journal of Management, v. 11, p. 1-15

CAMPBELL, J. (2007). Why Would Corporations Behave in Socially Responsible Ways? An Institutional Theory of Corporate Social Responsibility, Academy f Management Review, v. 32, n. 3, p. 946-967

CHEAH. E.; CHAN, W.; CHIENG, C. (2007). The corporate social responsibility of pharmaceutical product recalls: An empirical examination of US and UK markets, Journal of Business Ethics, v. 76, p. 427-449

CHASE, R. B. (1998). Operations Management Internationalization and Interdisciplinary Integration, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, v. 18, n. 7, p. 663-667

CNNMONEY.COM (2010), Drug Recalls Surge, Available at:

DALE, B. (2003). Managing Quality, 4th ed. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford

DE LA FUENTE, M. V.; ROS, L.; CARDÓS, M. (2008). Integrating Forward and Reverse Supply Chains: Application to a Metal-Mechanic Company, International Journal of Production Economics, v. 111, p. 782-792.

EDWARDS, A. (2010). Manufacturing the future, Integrated collaboration between CMOs and Sponsors, Available at:

EISENHARDT, K. (1989). Building Theories from Case Study Research, Academy of Management Review, v. 14, n. 4, p. 532-550

EUROPEAN MEDICINES AGENCY (2007). An Analysis of Quality Product Defects in Centralized Procedure, Available at:

FASSOULA, E. (2005). Reverse logistics as a means of reducing the cost of quality, Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, v. 16, n. 5, p. 631-643

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, (2007). CDER Facts and Figures, Available at:

GOULDING, C. (2002). Grounded Theory, A Practical Guide Management. Business and Marketing Research, Sage Publications

GRAUNAUER, T.; SCHERRER-RATHJE, M.; FRIEDLI, T. (2009). A reference framework to sustainably implement operational excellence in the pharmaceutical industry, EurOMA 2009 Proceedings. Available at:

GRI, (2011). Available at

GRONROOS, C. (2008). Service logistics revisited: who creates value and who co-creates, European Business Review, v. 20, n. 4, p. 298-314

HART, S. (1997). Beyond greening, Harvard Business Review, n. 1, p. 66-76

HART, S.; MILSTEIN, M. (2003). Creating Sustainable Value, Academy of Management Executive, v. 17, n. 2, p. 55-69

HOWARD, I.; HUMBY, S. (2008). Embedding Corporate Responsibility into Supply: A Snapshot of Progress, European Management Journal, v. 26, p. 166-174

HUNTER, T. S.; DROEGE, M.; MARSH, W. A.; DROEGE, W. L. (2005). CE: Effectively managing pharmaceutical returns and waste, Drug Topics, v. 149, n. 2, p. 36.

IMS HEALTH, (2010). Available at:


JORGENSEN, T. (2008). Towards more Sustainable Management Systems: through Life Cycle Management and Integration, Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 16, p. 1071-1080

KIRIDERA, S.; HASAN, M.; KERR, R. (2009). Exploring deeper Structures in Manufacturing Strategy formation Progress: A Qualitative Inquiry, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, v. 29, n. 4, p. 386-417

KUMAR, S.; DIEVENEY, E.; DIEVENEY, A. (2009). Reverse logistic process control measures for the pharmaceutical supply chain, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, v. 58, n. 2, p. 188-204

KUMAR, S.; PUTMAN, V. (2008). Cradle to cradle: reverse logistics and opportunities across three industry sectors, Int. Journal of Production Economics, v. 115, p. 305-315

KRUMWIEDE, D.; SHEU, C. (2002). A model for reverse logistics entry by third-party providers, Omega, v. 30, p. 325-333

LEVIS, A.; PAPAGEORGIOU, L. (2004). A hierarchical solution approach for multi-site capacity planning under uncertainty in the pharmaceutical industry, Computers and Chemical Engineering, v. 28, p. 707-725

LINTON, J.; KLASSEN, R.; JAYARAM, V. (2007). Sustainable Supply Chains: An Introduction, Journal of Operations Management, v. 25, p. 1075-1082.

MAHBOUBIAN-JONES, G. (2009). Toyota and lesson for pharma top managers, Available at:

MAHLER, D. (2007). The Sustainable Supply Chain, Supply Chain Management Review, v. 11, n. 8, p. 59

MARKEY, M.; DAVIS, L. (2007). Exploring future competitive advantage through sustainable supply chains, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, v. 37, n. 9, p. 763-774

MCCONNELL, J.; NUNNALLY, B. K.; MCGARVEY, B. (2009). Variation – Past, Present, and Future, Journal of Validation Technology, Spring 2009, p. 37-42.

MEREDITH, J. (1998). Building Operations Management Theory through Case and Field Research, Journal of Operations Management, v. 16, n. 4, p. 441-454

MOLLENKOPF, D.; CLOSS, D.J. (2005). The Hidden Value in Reverse Logistics, Supply Chain Management Review, (July/August), p. 34-43

MOLLENKOPF, D.; RUSSO, I.; FRANKEL, R. (2011). Creating Value through Returns Management: Exploring the market-Operations Interface, Journal of Operations Management, Article in press.

MOLLENKOPF, D.; RUSSO, I.; FRANKEL, R. (2007). The Returns Management Process in Supply Chain Strategy, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, v. 37, n. 7, p. 568-592.

MORHARDT, J.; BAIRD, S.; FREEMAN, K. (2002). Scoring Corporate Environmental and Sustainability using GRI 2000, ISO 14031 and Other Criteria, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, v. 9, p. 215-333

PAPAGEORGIOU, L.; ROTSTEIN, G.; SHAH, N. (2001). Strategic supply chain optimization of the pharmaceutical industries, Ind. Eng. Chem. Resources, v. 40, p. 275-286


PLUTA, P.; POSKA, R. (2010). Compliance by Design (CbD) and Compliance Master Plan (CMP) – An Organized Approach to Compliance, Journal of GXP Compliance, v. 14, n. 2, p. 73-82

PORTER, M. (1998). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, The Free Press, New York

REUTERS ONLINE, (2009). CBR Pharma Insights: The New Pharmaceutical Sales Force - Key Trends Shaping Future Sales Strategies, Available at:


RITCHIE, L.; BURNES, B.; WHITTLE, P.; HEY, R. (2000). The benefits of reverse logistics: the case of Manchester Royal Infirmary Pharmacy, Supply Chain Management, v. 5, p. 226-34.

SARTORI, G. (2011). Reverse logistics role in securing pharmaceutical supply chain, Reverse Logistics Magazine, Edition 16

SKINNER, L. R.; BRYANT, P. T.; RICHEY R. G. (2008), Examining the Impact of Reverse Logistics Disposition Strategies, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, v. 38, n. 7, p. 518-539.

SOUZA, D.; DANASE, J.; CONSTATINOU, D. (2005). Business Efficiency and Regulatory.

SOUZA, A.; KEELING, D.; PHILLIPS, R. (2007). Improving quality in pharma manufacturing, The McKinsey Quarterly

STEGEMANN, S. (2010). Better by design, Available at

STOCK, J. R. (1998). Development and Implementation of Reverse Logistics Programs, Council of Logistics Management, Annual Conference Proceeding

STOCK, J.; MULKI, J. (2009). Product returns processing: an examination of practices of manufacturers, wholesalers/distributors, and retailers, Journal of Business Logistics, v. 30, n. 1, p. 33-62

STRAUS, A. L.; CORBIN, J. (1994), Grounded Theory Methodology: An Overview, in Denzin Denzin, Norman K. (ed.) Handbook of Qualitative Resarch, London; Sage p. 273-285

SUDDABY, R. (2006). What Grounded Theory is Not, Academy Management Journal, v. 49, n. 4, p. 633-642

SZÉKELY, F.; KNIRSCH, M. (2005). Responsible Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility: Metrics for Sustainable Performance, European Management Journal, v. 23, n. 6, p. 628-647

TRIM, P.; LEE, Y. (2004). A Reflection on Theory building and Development of Management Knowledge, Management Decision, v. 42, n. 314, p.473-480

YIN, R. (1994). Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Sage, London

YIN, R. (2009). Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Sage, London

YU, L. (2008). Pharmaceutical quality by Design: Product and Process Development, Understanding, and Control, Pharmaceutical Research, v. 25, n. 4.

VELEVA, V.; ELLENBECKER, M. (2001). Indicators of Sustainable Production: Framework and Methodology, Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 9, n. 6, p. 519-49


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)


Logo Gaudeamus






Logo Kennedy

Logo Columbia

Logo UCS


Logo OPT

Logo Biblioteca Professor Milton Cabral Moreira

Logo UFL