Periodicity.: May - June 2020
e-ISSN......: 2236-269X
Cover Image

Association of work-life balance and job satisfaction in commercial pilots: a case study of Pakistan

Mariyam Malik, Musarrat Shamshir, Khurram Khan


The premise of this research was to investigate the state of work-life balance in commercial pilots of Pakistan. The objective was to investigate the impact of family-work conflict and work-family conflicts on job satisfaction. This study focused on commercial pilots of Pakistan that are currently employed by the four commercial aviation organizations of Pakistan. The sampling method utilized will be convenience sampling specifically focusing on chief pilots, captains and first officers who are flying commercially. The research was conducted on 192 pilots. It was concluded that Family-work conflict results in a higher level of job satisfaction, Work-family conflict leads to a lower level of job satisfaction and amid family-work conflict and work-family conflict; Work-Family conflict has a stronger correlation with job satisfaction.


Business; Management; Human Resource

Full Text:



ALLEN, T. D. (2013) The work–life interface: A synthesis of research from industrial and organizational psychology. In SCHMITT, N.; HIGH, S. house (Eds., p. Handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology, v. 12, p. 698-718. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

ANSARI, S.; CHIMANI, K.; BALOCH, R. A.; BUKHARI, H. F. S. (2015) Impact of Work Life Balance on Employee Productivity: An Empirical Investigation from the Banking Sector of Pakistan. Information and Knowledge Management, ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper).

BAKER, R.; BRICK, J. M.; BATES, N. A.; BATTAGLIA, M.; COUPER, M. P.; DEVER, J. A.; TOURANGEAU, R. (2013) Summary report of the AAPOR task force on nonprobability sampling. Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology, v. 1, n. 2, p. 90143.

BACHARACH, S. B.; BAMBERGER, P.; CONLEY, S. (1991) Work‐home conflict among nurses and engineers: Mediating the impact of role stress on burnout and satisfaction at work. Journal of organizational Behavior, v. 12, n. 1, p. 39-53.

BARLING, J.; SORENSEN, D. (1997) Work and family: In search of a relevant research agenda. Creating tomorrow’s organizations, p. 157-169.

BEAUREGARD, T. A.; HENRY, L. C. (2009) Making the link between work-life balance practices and organizational performance. Human resource management review, v. 19, n. 1, p. 9-22.

BENNET, S. (2011) The Pilot Lifestyle: a sociological study of the commercial pilot’s work and home life. [ebook] Available at: [Accessed 19 May 2019].

BHUTTO, S. (2016) Work-Life Balance and Job Satisfaction: An Assessment of Pakistan’s Banking Sector. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, v. 6, n. 18, p. 2224-5766.

BLAU, P. M. (1964) Exchange and power in social life. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

BOLES, J. S.; HOWARD, W. G.; DONOFRIO, H. H. (2001) An investigation into the inter-relationships of work-family conflict, family-work conflict and work satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Issues, v. 13, n. 3, p. 376.

BONACHE, J. (2005) Job satisfaction among expatriates, repatriates and domestic employees: The perceived impact of international assignments on work-related variables. Personnel review, v. 34, n. 1, p.110-124.

BRAYFIELD, A. H.; ROTHE, H. F. (1951) An index of job satisfaction. Journal of applied psychology, v. 35, n. 5, p. 307.

BYRON, K. (2005) A metal analytic review of work-family conflict and its antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, v. 67, n. 2, p. 169-198.

CLAY, R. (2011) Is stress getting to you. Monitor on Psychology, v. 42, n. 1, p. 58.

COVERMAN, S. (1989) Role overload, role conflict, and stress: Addressing consequences of multiple role demands. Social forces, v. 67, n. 4, p. 965-982.

CREDE, M.; CHERNYSHENKO, O. S.; STARK, S.; DALAL, R. S.; BASHSHUR, M. (2007) Job satisfaction as mediator: An assessment of job satisfaction's position within the nomological network. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, v. 80, n. 3, p. 515-538.

DRAGO, R.; KASHIAN, R. (2003) Mapping the terrain of work/family journals. Journal of Family Issues, v. 24, n. 4, p. 488-512

EBY, L. T.; CASPER, W. J.; LOCKWOOD, A.; BORDEAUX, C.; BRINLEY, A. (2005) Work and family research in IO/OB: Content analysis and review of the literature (1980–2002). Journal of vocational behavior, v. 66, n. 1, p. 124-197.

EDWARDS, J. R.; ROTHBARD, N. P. (2000) Mechanisms linking work and family: Clarifying the relationship between work and family constructs. Academy of management review, v. 25, n. 1, p. 178-199.

ERNST KOSSEK, E.; OZEKI, C. (1998) Work–family conflict, policies, and the job–life satisfaction relationship: a review and directions for organizational behavior–human resources research. Journal of applied psychology, v. 83, n. 2, p. 139.

FRONE, M. R.; RUSSELL, M.; COOPER, M. L. (1992) Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict: testing a model of the work-family interface. Journal of applied psychology, v. 77, n. 1, p.65.

FRONE, M. R.; YARDLEY, J. K.; MARKEL, K. S. (1997) Developing and testing an integrative model of the work–family interface. Journal of vocational behavior, v. 50, n. 2, p. 145-167.

FRYE, N. K.; BREAUGH, J. A. (2004) Family-friendly policies, supervisor support, work–family conflict, family–work conflict, and satisfaction: A test of a conceptual model. Journal of Business and Psychology, v. 19, n. 2, p. 197-220.

GONYEA, J. G.; GOOGINS, B. K. (1992) Linking the worlds of work and family: Beyond the productivity trap. Human resource management, v. 31, n. 3, p. 209-226.

GOOD, L. K.; SISLER, G. F.; GENTRY, J. W. (1988) Antecedents of turnover intentions among retail management. Journal of Retailing, v. 64, n. 3, p. 295.

GOODE, W. J. (1960) A theory of role strain. American sociological review, p. 483-496.

GOULDNER, A. (1960) The norm of reciprocity, American Sociological Review, n. 25, p. 165-167.

GREENHAUS, J. H.; ALLEN, T. D. (2011) Work-family balance: A review and extension of the literature. In QUICK, J. C.; TETRICK, L. E. (Eds., p. Handbook of occupational health psychology (2nd ed.). (p. 165-183). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

GREENHAUS, J. H.; COLLINS, K. M.; SHAW, J. D. (2003) The relation between work–family balance and quality of life. Journal of Vocational Behavior, v. 63, n. 3, p. 510-531.

GREENHAUS, J. H.; BEUTELL, N. J. (1985) Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of management review, v. 10, n. 1, p. 76-88.

GREENHAUS, J. H.; KOSSEK, E. E. (2014) The contemporary career: A work–home perspective. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav., v. 1, n. 1, p. 361-388.

GREENHAUS, J. H.; POWELL, G. N. (2006) When work and family are allies: A theory of work-family enrichment. Academy of management review, v. 31, n. 1, p. 72-92.

GREENHAUS, J. H.; ZIEGERT, J. C.; ALLEN, T. D. (2012) When family-supportive supervision matters: Relations between multiple sources of support and work–family balance. Journal of vocational behavior, v. 80, n. 2, p. 266-275.

GUELZOW, M. G.; BIRD, G. W.; KOBALL, E. H. (1991) An exploratory path analysis of the stress process for dual-career men and women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, p. 151-164.

GUEST, D. (2002) Human resource management, corporate performance and employee wellbeing: Building the worker into HRM. The journal of industrial relations, v. 44, n. 3, p. 335-358.

GUTEK, B. A.; SEARLE, S.; KLEPA, L. (1991) Rational versus gender role explanations for work-family conflict. Journal of applied psychology, v. 76, n. 4, p. 560.

HAAR, J. M.; RUSSO, M.; SUÑE, A.; OLLIER-MALATERRE, A. (2014) Outcomes of work–life balance on job satisfaction, life satisfaction and mental health: A study across seven cultures. Journal Of Vocational Behavior, v. 85, n. 3, p. 361-373.

HAIR, J. F.; BLACK, W. C.; BABIN, B. J.; ANDERSON, R. E. (2010) Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

HAMMER, L. B.; BAUER, T. N.; GRANDEY, A. A. (2003) Work-family conflict and work-related withdrawal behaviors. Journal of Business and Psychology, v. 17, n. 3, p. 419-436.

HEWLETT, S. A.; LUCE, C. B. (2006) Extreme jobs: The dangerous allure of the 70-hour workweek. Harvard business review, v. 84, n. 12, p. 49-59.

HILBRECHT, M.; SHAW, S. M.; JOHNSON, L. C.; ANDREY, J. (2008) I'm home for the kids: contradictory implications for work–life balance of teleworking mothers. Gender, Work & Organization, v. 15, n. 5, p. 454-476.

HOCHSCHILD, A. R. (1997) The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work (Henry Holt and Company, New York).

JACKSON, S. E.; SCHULER, R. S. (1985) A meta-analysis and conceptual critique of research on role ambiguity and role conflict in work settings. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, v. 36, n. 1, p. 16-78.

JOHNSON, M. (2016) Workin’ 9 to 5.30 – Unpaid overtime and work–life balance. [online] Available at: [Accessed 13 May 2019].

KAHN, R. L.; WOLFE, D. M.; QUINN, R. P.; SNOEK, J. D.; ROSENTHAL, R. A. (1964) Organizational stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity.

KANTER, R. M. (1977) Work and family in the United States: A critical review and agenda for research and policy. Russell Sage Foundation.

KOSSEK, E. E.; VALCOUR, M.; LIRIO, P. (2014) The Sustainable Workforce: Organizational Strategies for Promoting Work–Life Balance and Wellbeing. Wellbeing: A Complete Reference Guide, p. 1-24.

LAVOIE, M. (2004) Post Keynesian consumer theory: Potential synergies with consumer research and economic psychology. Journal of Economic Psychology, v. 25, n. 5, p. 639-649.

LOCKE, E. A. (1969) What is job satisfaction?. Organizational behavior and human performance, v. 4, n. 4, p. 309-336.

LYNESS, K. S.; JUDIESCH, M. K. (2014) Gender egalitarianism and work–life balance for managers: Multisource perspectives in 36 countries. Applied Psychology, v. 63, n. 1, p. 96-129.

LYNESS, K. S.; KROPF, M. B. (2005) The relationships of national gender equality and organizational support with work-family balance: A study of European managers. Human Relations, v. 58, n. 1, p. 33-60.

MACDERMID, S. M. (2004) (Re) Considering conflict between work and family. In Work and life integration (p. 39-59). Psychology Press.

MACINNES, J. (2005) Work–life balance and the demand for reduction in working hours: Evidence from the British Social Attitudes Survey 2002. British Journal of Industrial Relations, v. 43, n. 2, p. 273-295.

MAERTZ JR, C. P.; BOYAR, S. L. (2011) Work-family conflict, enrichment, and balance under “levels” and “episodes” approaches. Journal of Management, v. 37, n. 1, p. 68-98.

MAJID, H.; RIAZ, W. (2018) Men’s work hours. Dawn. [online] Available at: [Accessed 15 May 2019].

MARKS, S. R.; MACDERMID, S. M. (1996) Multiple roles and the self: A theory of role balance. Journal of Marriage and the Family, p. 417-432.

MARKS, S. R. (1977) Multiple roles and role strain: Some notes on human energy, time and commitment. American sociological review, p. 921-936.

MARTINS, L. L.; EDDLESTON, K. A.; VEIGA, J. F. (2002) Moderators of the relationship between work-family conflict and career satisfaction. Academy of management journal, v. 45, n. 2, p. 399-409.

NAMASIVAYAM, K.; MOUNT, D. J. (2004) The relationship of work-family conflicts and family-work conflict to job satisfaction. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, v. 28, n. 2, p. 242-250.

NETEMEYER, R. G.; BOLES, J. S.; MCMURRIAN, R. (1996) Development and validation of work–family conflict and family–work conflict scales. Journal of applied psychology, v. 81, n. 4, p. 400.

NUNNALLY, J. C.; BERNSTEIN, I. H. (1994) Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill

OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development). 2015. Better life index.What matters most to people around the world? Australia, Paris.

OLSEN, D. (1993) Work satisfaction and stress in the first and third year of academic appointment. The Journal of Higher Education, v. 64, n. 4, p. 453-471.

PARASURAMAN, S.; GREENHAUS, J.H. eds.; 1999. Integrating work and family: Challenges and choices for a changing world. Greenwood Publishing Group.

PENKIN, N. P.; KOMAROVSKY, V. A. (1976) Oscillator strengths of spectral lines and lifetimes of atoms of rare earth elements with unfilled 4f-shell. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, v. 16, n. 3, p. 217-252.

PLECK, J. H. (1977) The work-family role system. Social problems, v. 24, n. 4, p. 417-427.

RAPOPORT, R.; RAPOPORT, R. N. (1969) The dual career family: A variant pattern and social change. Human relations, v. 22, n. 1, p. 3-30.

RAYMAN, P. M.; BOOKMAN, A. (1999) Creating a research and public policy agenda for work, family, and community. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, v. 562, n. 1, p. 191-211.

RENEE BAPTISTE, N. (2008) Tightening the link between employee wellbeing at work and performance: A new dimension for HRM. Management decision, v. 46, n. 2, p. 284-309.

RENSHAW, J. R. (1976) An exploration of the dynamics of the overlapping worlds of work and family. Family Process, v. 15, n. 1, p. 143-165.

RHOADES, L.; EISENBERGER, R. (2002) Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature. Journal of applied psychology, v. 87, n. 4, p. 698.

ROUSSEAU, D. M. (1989) Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee responsibilities and rights journal, v. 2, n. 2, p. 121-139.

SALEEM, A. (2015) Impact of life and job domain characteristics on work-life balance of textile employees in Pakistan. Science International, v. 27, n. 3, p. 2409-2416.

SARWAR, A.; AFTAB, H. (2011) Work stress & family imbalance in service sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Social Science, v. 2, n. 13.

SHADAB, M.; ARIF, K. (2015) Impact of Work-Life Balance on Job Satisfaction A Case of Health Care Services in Pakistan. Journal of developing country studies, v. 5, n. 9.

SIEBER, S. D. (1974) Toward a theory of role accumulation. American sociological review, p. 567-578.

SPECTOR, P. E.; COOPER, C. L.; POELMANS, S. A. Y.; ALLEN, T. D.; O’DRISCOLL, M.; SANCHEZ.; YU, S. (2004) A cross-national comparative study of work–family stressors, working hours, and well-being: China and Latin America versus the Anglo world. Personnel Psychology, n. 57, p. 119-142.

SPECTOR, P. E. (1997) Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences (v. 3). Sage publications.

STURGES, J.; GUEST, D. (2004) Working to live or living to work? Work/life balance early in the career. Human Resource Management Journal, v. 14, n. 4, p. 5-20.

THIBAUT. J. W.; KELLEY, H. H. (1959) The social psychology of groups. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.

VASILEIOU, E.; THEODOSSIOU, I.; SKULLI, A. (2008) Jobs as Lancaster goods: Facets of job satisfaction and overall job satisfaction. The Journal of Socio- Economics, v. 37, p. 1906-1920.

WIERDA‐BOER, H. H.; GERRIS, J. R.; VERMULST, A. A. (2008) Adaptive strategies, gender ideology, and work‐family balance among Dutch dual earners. Journal of Marriage and Family, v. 70, n. 4, p. 1004-1014.

ZHANG, J.; LIU, Y. (2011) Antecedents of work-family conflict: Review and prospect. International journal of business and management, v. 6, n. 1, p. 89.


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Mariyam Malik, Musarrat Shamshir, Khurram Khan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Logo Gaudeamus






Logo Kennedy

Logo Columbia

Logo UCS


Logo OPT

Logo Biblioteca Professor Milton Cabral Moreira

Logo UFL