Periodicity.: May - June 2020
e-ISSN......: 2236-269X



Mariyam Malik

Greenwich University, Pakistan



Musarrat Shamshir

Dean Faculty of Management Science, Greenwich University, Pakistan., Pakistan



Khurram Khan

Associate Professor, Pakistan



Submission: 5/20/2019

Revision: 9/18/2019

Accept: 10/2/2019



The premise of this research was to investigate the state of work-life balance in commercial pilots of Pakistan. The objective was to investigate the impact of family-work conflict and work-family conflicts on job satisfaction. This study focused on commercial pilots of Pakistan that are currently employed by the four commercial aviation organizations of Pakistan. The sampling method utilized will be convenience sampling specifically focusing on chief pilots, captains and first officers who are flying commercially. The research was conducted on 192 pilots. It was concluded that Family-work conflict results in a higher level of job satisfaction, Work-family conflict leads to a lower level of job satisfaction and amid family-work conflict and work-family conflict; Work-Family conflict has a stronger correlation with job satisfaction.


Keywords: work-family conflict, Work-life balance, family-work conflict, Job satisfaction, commercial pilots.


            The term Work-life balance refers to maintaining an optimum balance amidst work roles, life roles and personal responsibilities and therefore becomes a crucial concern that demands attention (HAAR et al., 2014; MAERTZ; BOYAR, 2011; KOSSEK et al., 2014; GREENHAUS et al., 2003; GUEST, 2002; GREENHAUS; ALLEN, 2011). It has garnered intense consideration knowing the magnitude of impact it can have on any organization at a micro and macro level (GREENHAUS et al., 2012; GREENHAUS; KOSSEK, 2014; BEAUREGARD; HENRY, 2009).

            In the last 30 years, ample research has been conducted to comprehend the dynamics between life roles and work roles at a general level (ALLEN, 2013). The emphasis is because demands of the workplace can have an adverse impact on personal life (family and personal leisure) (HILBRECHT et al., 2008). Relatively the current generation of managers as well as professionals are working harder than the generations that have gone by due to the blur of boundaries between family and work life (MACLNNES, 2005).

            US based studies conclude that jobs today have become globalized and therefore resulting in availability of clients round the clock demanding long working hours, fast and unpredictable work flows with tighter deadlines and work-related commitments besides the conventional work hours (HOCHSCHILD, 1997; HEWLETT; LUCE, 2006;). Clay (2011) states that 36 percent of the employees in US are satisfied with the degree of support their employers lend to maintain work-life balance. It was 42 percent in 2009.

            A study in Australia concludes that one employee out of two experiences an imbalance in their work-life dynamics. Another study concludes that since the past 5 years; 42 percent of the employees experienced a decline in their work-life balance due to long working hours. 14 percent of workers work for longer hours which sums above 50 hours per week which rounds off to 13 percent higher than the average stated by OECD (JOHNSON, 2016; OECD, 2015).

            A study in Pakistan concludes that work life balance is adversely impacted by the expectations organizations have in terms of longer working hours in week days and over-timing during weekends resulting in sacrificing family responsibilities. Job domain characteristics such as work load, long working hours and work schedules influence their work-life balance (SALEEM, 2015).

            Research was conducted on banks and postulated that there is an intense imbalance of work-life in bankers because of work pressure and mostly workers work beyond their official duty timing. Long working hours have impacted their family life, working life as well as their social life and motivation levels (BHUTTO, 2016).

            This study is premised on work-life balance at a broader level. Researchers have analyzed the concept of work-life balance by using various variables to understand the dynamics (WIERDA-BOER et al., 2008; LYNESS; KROPF, 2005).  There are many domains that interact with each other but at a macro level but work domain and family domain are the major domains in any individual’s life and therefore makes this study entirely relevant when it comes to comprehending WLB. It is mandatory to not only balance but also to integrate career and family responsibilities (STURGES; GUEST, 2004). Research on WLB has intensified since the last two decades (FRONE et al., 1997).

            Social structures have changed drastically consisting of parents with dependent care, single-parent families, dual career couples and aging couple. These constituents of the social structure today have garnered the attention of the researchers in the area of WLB. Besides the social structure, work force composition has also altered drastically consisting of employees who regularly must fulfill family responsibilities besides work responsibilities (EBY et al., 2005). The sync amidst family role and work role is impossible which results in an intense work family conflict (GREENHAUS; BEUTELL, 1985).

            It is these conflicting demands between life and work domain that leads to lower productivity, higher absenteeism, lower work efficiency and effectiveness which eventually leads to burnout (HAMMER et al., 2003). Higher globalization means higher dependencies on global market forces which eventually demands timely delivery of services and products. It is this aspect which ends up having a deteriorating effect on employee well-being and health (RENEE BAPTISTE, 2008).

            It is crucial to have higher level of employee's engagement and it is only possible when there is optimum work life balance.  Optimum level of WLB can lead to lower levels of work-family conflict and stress (FRONE et al., 1992). Ever since the emphasis on WLB has been laid by the research world, organizations are putting an effort in balancing the work demands and the life demands of the employees (GREENHAUS; POWELL, 2006; BYRON, 2005).

            The shift of researchers towards work-life balance has a lot to do with technological and demographical shifts in terms of women being part of the work force, altering family structures and increase in working modes i.e. Flextime. Different mode of work leads to different psychological processes which impacts the work and the life domains. Therefore, it becomes crucial for concerned authorities to ensure that there is high level of well-being of the employees (SPECTOR et al., 2004).


2.1.          Work-Life Balance (WLB)

            Numerous scholars have had consensus that effective employee have a work-life balance (KOSSEK et al., 2014). WLB not only effects work productivity but also influences the overall employee well-being (LYNESS; JUDIESCH, 2014). Work-life balance is multi-disciplined consisting of labor economics, human development, organizational behavior, psychology, sociology, women studies, demography, management and industrial relations (DRAGO; KASHIAN, 2003).

            Research conducted on WLB roots from 1949. Researches from the 40’s were focused on the conflicts that roots from gender (MACDERMID, 2004). In 1970’s and 1980’s there were developments in work and life fields. (GONYEA; GOOGINS, 1992).

            Kanter (1977) conducted a research on family and work systems targeting the American Society and Kanter was able to break a new ground when it comes to analyzing the association concerning family and work (RAYMAN; BOOKMAN, 1999; BARLING; SORENSON, 1997).  The core assumption that’s commonly present when it comes to family and work oriented research is that both the domains are not separate. Work and family along with other domains of life are entwined in a way that dynamics of one domain impacts the other domains (KANTER, 1977).

            Other groundbreaking researches also support the discovery that dynamics of family and work leads to consequences that can be positive and negative (RAPOPORT; RAPOPORT, 1969; PLECK, 1977). In spite knowing that positive and negative; both the consequences exist but the term has been used more from a negative connotation than a positive one such as work-family conflict ignoring the positive outcomes such as life satisfaction, organizational commitment and job satisfaction which eventually leads to a higher job performance (GREENHAUS; BEUTELL, 1985).

            Like the rest of the world, Pakistan is no exception and faces work and life balance issues. Sarwar and Aftab (2011) researched on the service sector of Pakistan targeting 500 middle managers and concluded that employees; regardless of gender; underwent work stress and their families suffered because of it.

            Another research was conducted on the banks analyzed the impact of WLB on employees productivity. This research also concluded that WLB has a positive impact on employees productivity (ANSARI et al., 2015).

            Shahdab and Arif (2015) researched on the association of WLB on JS in the health care sector of Pakistan and concluded that 50 percent of the targeted sample was dissatisfied with their job due to imbalance in work and life dynamics. It highlighted that longer working hours as a cause of imbalance amidst the two domains.

            According to Pakistan’s labor law, A standard work week should be 48 hours approximately and 47.4 hours precisely. a recent survey by labor force survey (LFS) revealed a more telling picture. The survey concluded that males tend to invest 15 hours higher than a woman in a in a productive week on average basis. Males residing in urban areas have had the highest average of 54 hours invested in a productive week. Males in the sales field have spent the longest rounding up to a 57 hour of productive work week.

            Employees are never disconnected from work even after they head back home since they are connected to their workplace through their work-place gadgets via emails and phone calls. Long working hours is still common despite Factories act of 1934 where it is stated that it is illegal for adults to work for more than 8 to 9 hours a day. For employees in Pakistan stress is consistent regardless of them being at work or at home with their families. Stress, long working hours and time away from family and other personal activities tend to have an impact on the health such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension.

            A study conducted by Stanford University’s professors in 2015 utilizing the data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey concluded that employee stress tends to cost $125 to $190 billion dollars in health care characterized by overwork accounting of 48 billion dollars. Overwork impacts the family domain of life too. Long working hours tends to keep the man away from his wife and children impacting them in an intense way.

            Absence of a father figure impacts child development since studies in US and Norway concluded that a father’s presence brings forth a positive influence on the child. Moreover, it induces a higher level of stress and burden on the wife knowing that besides household chores and well-being of the children; a wife also must take care of the responsibilities that falls in the man’s sphere.

            What can be done when it comes to ensuring that every employee has an optimum level of work and life balance is to have serious legislative actions to be taken. It is recommended to do decrease long working hours based on the Factories act of 1934 and boost wages so that the premise of long working hours to fulfill minimum standard of living is tackled (MAJID & RIAZ, 2018).

2.2.          Work–Family Conflict (WFC) and Family–Work Conflict (FWC)

            Literature has it that disequilibrium leads to conflicts in both the domains of life. Work Family conflict disrupts the balance creating a state of disequilibrium eventually leading to conflicts. WFC can be described as an inter-role conflict whereby pressure from both the domains become incompatible. Fulfillment of responsibilities in the work domain makes participation in life domain more difficult and vice versa (GREENHAUS; BEUTELL,1985).

            This concept is said to be closer to the concept of role conflict which is analyzed through work context. Inter-role conflict arises when several work-roles conflict each other resulting in pressurizing the employee and the employee is unable fulfill roles effectively (COVERMAN, 1989). Likewise, role strain or role overload takes place when incompatible demands of various roles clash and the intensity of pressure is so great that the individual is unable to meet the conflicting demands (MARKS; MACDERMID, 1996; PENKIN; KOMAROVSKY, 1976; GUELZOW; BIRD; KOBALL, 1991; GOODE, 1960).

            Therefore, Role conflict like role overload is specifically linked to the total availability of energy and time required to satisfy the role demands. Role conflict can is triggered when role demands are said to be incompatible due to employee not having enough energy and time to satisfy them. These views are pertinent to our comprehension of the different kinds of role conflict amidst the domains i.e. WFC. There are 3 types of WFC that can take place when role ambiguity, lack of autonomy, pressure, role overload (i.e. work stressors) confine the capacity of employees to efficiently micromanage their personal lives and work (GREENHAUS; BEUTELL, 1985).

            The three types of work-family conflicts are time-based conflict, strain-based conflict and behavior-based conflict (BACHARACH BAMBERGER; CONLEY, 1991; GREENHAUS; BEUTELL, 1985; JACKSON; SCHULER, 1985). Therefore, work-family conflict takes place when an employee’s involvement in work oriented task hinders the involvement in a conflicting family oriented activity (e.g. KAHN et al., 1964; RENSHAW, 1976).

            Simultaneously, another form of conflict that takes place is the family-work conflict whereby employee’s involvement in family oriented activities hinders the involvement in a conflicting work oriented task or when family oriented pressure or stress has an adverse negative impact on the performance of the employee in fulfilling a work role (FRONE; YARDLEY; MARKET, 1997; GREENHAUS; BEUTELL, 1985; PARASURAMAN; GREENHAUS, 1999; GUTEK; SEARLE; KLEPA, 1991).

            Considerable amount of research has been done on the interface of work and life balance and is targeted on the concept of work and family conflict. Conflicts like work-family conflict occur from conflicting pressure from life and work domains. The incompatibility makes involvement or participation in one domain challenging by virtue of involvement in the other domain of life. (GREENHAUS; BEUTELL, 1985).

            Scarcity theory is linked to conflict perspective when it comes to work and life balance which shoulders that personal resources like attention, energy and time are finite by nature and dedication to one role eventually leads to less attention, energy and time for the other role (EDWARDS; ROTHBARD, 2000; MARKS, 1977; SIEBER, 1974).

            Therefore, individuals who devote their time, energy and attention to family and work roles are more prone to experiencing a conflict amidst the two roles. Researches in the past have shown that employees tend to face higher levels of work demands with an upsurge in the number of working hours (ZHANG; LIU, 2011) which ultimately contributes to work-family conflicts. Evidently, an imbalance or the presence of conflicts amidst family demand and work demand are linked to undesirable consequences for not just the employees but also the organization at large. 

2.3.          Job Satisfaction (JS)

            Job satisfaction is said to be an outcome of work-life balance and is crucial to comprehending it. Locke (1969) described JS as the degree to which expectations of the employees matches what is received from the workplace. JS can also be explained as how well the job is providing for the employee. It can also be defined as an emotional response that is positive by nature to a job situation resulting from acquiring what an employee deems as being valuable from the job (OLSEN, 1993).

            JS can be termed as an attitude concerning the degree to which employees dislike or like the employees (SPECTOR, 1997). The literature proposes that job satisfaction is said to be an affective response to different facades of the job, for instance career prospects and job content (BONACHE, 2005).

            According to Vasileiou, Theodossiou and Skulli (2008) employees tend to make a judgement about the level of job satisfaction via perception about promotional scope, job insecurity, level of earning, working conditions and job tasks etc. Many scholars have emphasized over the fact that there has been an upsurge in employees demanding for work and life balance initiatives due to the change in dynamics of family structure. There is more of family responsibility, dependents responsibility, dual career couples, the feeling of spending quality time with family and friends and leisure time (LAVOIE, 2004).

            Therefore, organizations that have work and life balance practices implemented have more satisfied work force. There are various standpoints in the literature when it comes explaining the positive relationship of employee’s job satisfaction and work and life balance practices (CREDE et al., 2007). AN apt example of social exchange theory is the psychological contract, perceived organizational support, and the norm of reciprocity (ROUSSEAU, 1989; RHOADES; EISENBERGER, 2002; GOULDNER, 1960; BLAU, 1964; THIBAUT; KELLEY, 1959). In the stated theories, employees who believe that the organizations they work for is taking good care of them then they are more likely to have positive feelings and thus satisfaction.

2.4.          Research objectives

a)     To determine the impact of Work-Family conflict on job satisfaction

b)    To determine the impact of Family-work conflict on job satisfaction

c)     To identify whether work-family conflict will have a stronger correlation with job satisfaction than family-work conflict.

d)    To find out the importance of work-life balance in job satisfaction.

2.5.          Research hypotheses

·       H1: Work-Family conflict has a negative association with job satisfaction

·       H2: Family-work conflict has a negative association with job satisfaction

·       H3: Work- family conflict will have a stronger correlation with job satisfaction than family-work conflict. 

2.6.          Conceptual framework

Figure 1: Conceptual framework


            This study is a quantitative research. The type of study population targeted for this study was commercial pilots of Pakistan hired by four commercial aviation organizations of Pakistan. The sampling technique utilized was convenience sampling. When it comes to convenience sampling; the response rate is low. Scholars have postulated that the response rate is as low as 10 percent  (BAKER et al., 2013).

            The targetted organizations have a total of 710 pilots. The response rate was 192 respondents which is a 27 percent.Organizations were visited and questionnaires were kept by the chief pilots and they had it filled by the pilots that visited them. The questionnaire was physically filled by all 192 pilots which is equal to 27 percent. Research instrument utilized is Survey/Questionnaires.

            Hypothesis-based close-ended questionnaire was developed. Work-Family conflict and family-work conflict was measured using the inventory of Netemeyer, Boles, and McMurrian (1996). Five items were used for WFC and 5 items were used for FWC and were measured by 7-point Likert scale. Job satisfaction was measured using the inventory of Brayfield and Rothe (1951).


4.1.          Reliability Test

Table 1 Reliability of the variables


No. Of Items

Cronbach Value

Work-Family Conflict



Family-Work Conflict



Job Satisfaction




            In order to examine the measurement model, internal consistency estimation was conducted through Cronbach alpha. The value of Cronbach alpha should exceed the threshold of 0.70 for it be adequately internally consistent (NUNNALLY; BERNSTEIN, 1994; HAIR et al., 2010). Coherently, the current study’s alpha coefficient of all the present variables fall above the threshold. Consistent with this, the study found the alpha coefficient of all variables was well above the cut-off threshold as presented in Table 1 above.

Table 2: Combined Cronbach Alpha of the Variables

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

N of Items



            The Cronbach value is 0.732 which depicts reliability.

Table 3: R-Square Table

Model Summaryb



R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate








a. Predictors: (Constant), FWC, WFC

b. Dependent Variable: JS

            The value of R-square is 0.038 which shows that WFC and FWC(predictors) has 3.8 percent of change in JS (the criterion variable). Moreover, the Durbin Watson value is between the range of 0-2 which shows that there is a positive autocorrelation.

Table 4: ANOVA



Sum of Squares


Mean Square






















a. Dependent Variable: JS

b. Predictors: (Constant), FWC, WFC

            The value of  p is 0.026 which is below the threshold of 0.05 therefore shows that WFC and FWC has an impact on JS.

Table 5: Coefficient of Determination



Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients



Collinearity Statistics


Std. Error





























a. Dependent Variable: JS

            Amidst the two predictors; WFC has a lower significant value than 0.05 which depicts that it does influence JS. On the contrary, FWC has a P-value greater than 0.05 therefore depicting that it does not infleunce JS.Moreover, the VIF value is 1.137 which falls between the range of 1 to 5 which shows that the variables are moderately correlated.

Figure 1: Normality Curve

            The above curve shows normality.

Table 6: Correlation Table







Pearson Correlation




Sig. (2-tailed)









Pearson Correlation




Sig. (2-tailed)









Pearson Correlation




Sig. (2-tailed)








**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).


            The value of P for the predictor WFC is greater than 0.05 thereby depicting that WFC does not have an impact on JS. The P-value for FWC is greater than the threshold thereby depicting that FWC does not have an impact on JS.

Table 7: Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Test

KMO and Bartlett's Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.


Bartlett's Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square






            The KMO test value falls in the KMO value 0.858 falls in the range of 0.80 to 0.89 and is termed as “meritorious” by kaiser.

Table 8: Communalities

















































Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Table 9: Test of Normal Distribution

Tests of Normality
























a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

            Based on the table above, WFC and FWC’s p- value is less than 0.05 thereby proving that both the independent variables are significantly normally distributed along the distribution line.

4.2.          Results for Hypotheses

·       H1 states that WFC has an indirect association with JS; received a stronger support. The higher the value of WFC the lower is the level of JS that the individual experiences.

·       H2 states that FWC has an indirect association with job satisfaction; is not supported. The analysis concludes that FWC does not have an impact on JS.

·       H3 states that WFC conflict has a strong correlation with job satisfaction than family-to-work conflicts is supported. WFC has a correlation value of -0.195 which is higher than FWC value of -0.76. WFC has a weaker and negative correlation which is higher than FWC.


            Causative elements triggering JS along with the current research uncover that WFC impacts JS and FWC is not linked to JS when it comes to commercial pilots. This study investigated the association of WFC on an employee’s levels of JS. Particularly we analyzed the impact of WFC and FWC on JS levels. The data analysis reveals that dynamics of work interferes with the dynamics at home and results in lower satisfaction levels. Set of responsibilites of both the domains cannot be mutually exclusive.

            A research study by Boles, Howard, and Donofrio (2003) also concludes that WFC is indirectly proportional to job satisfaction. Similar conclusion has been reported in literature as well (NETEMEYER; BOLES; MCMURRIAN, 1996; GOOD; SISLER; GENTRY, 1988). When an individual experiences a conflict amidst family and work; the individual is bound to have varying levels of satisfaction effecting the effectiveness and efficiency of the actual work. The respondents were affectively family oriented and therefore any hinderance in the dynamics of the family led to lower level of JS (MARTINS; EDDLESTON; VEIGA, 2002).

            On the contrary, results further reveal that when an individual’s family dynamics interferes with work dynamics, employees tend to have higher levels of job satisfaction. It can be predicated that work can be a form of escape from family stress and problems. Additionally, work can be a source that can aid in facilitating employees financially. 

            Therefore, if work is perceived as a form of financial support, it is bound to be perceived positively. It can further be considered as a source to solve family needs, wants or disputes thereby increasing satisfaction. This challenges the assertions by researches that conclude that family-work conflict results in job dissatisfaction (NAMASIVAYAM; MOUNT, 2004).

            The analysis further concluded that FWC has -0.076 of correlation and WFC has -0.195 of correlation with JS. WFC has a higher negative correlation with JS than FWC. Literature has it that similar variables were researched upon on meta-analysis basis, and it concluded that WFC had a higher negative correlation of -0.27 and FWC had a correlation of -0.18 with job satisfaction (ERNST KOSSEK; OZEKI, 1998; FRYE; BREAUGH, 2004).

            It is a norm for pilots to have a higher level of sleep debt, lack of sleep, instability of the roster, inapplication of CAP 371 policy (900 hours), work-life imbalance, stress and fatigue. Such state is bound to have an impact on pilots when they return to their family. These need to be resolved to stop the vicious cycle of conflicts in a commercial pilots life (BENNET, 2011).


            Earlier researches have postulated that workplace is a source of stress for any employee. However, the result show that in the presence of family-work conflict; job satisfaction is higher. The nature of job that Aviators have in general consists of long working hours, sleep debt, lack of quality time with family and more time being in the air.

            Regardless of having a higher satisfaction level in the presence of family-work conflict; it is still crucial for organizations to ensure that their family-work conflict should be resolved knowing that their home is their time-out from work. Having to come at home and not having to rest but to face conflicts in turn aggravates stress which might be carried back to work the very next day.

            Moreover, the results  also show that Work-family conflict has an indirect association with job satisfaction. Any stress carried to work the very next day can impact the mental state of the empoyee whereby the employee might not be able to focus on flying leading to risking hundreds of lives that are dependent on the pilots. In order to have a better workplace system it is mandaotry for the organizations to have an apt comprehencsion of the dynamics of work roles and family roles.

            Attention should be given in the identifucaton of the precursors, moderators and the kind of associations that exist amidst the variables.To better undserstand the dynamics; structural equation modelling shoud be made use of. An important implication that has risen from it is that work-life balance policies should be revised.

            CAP371 policy is a policy where it is stated that a pilot should not fly more than 900 hours in a month. Restriction of the number of hours flown will give pilots more time to spend at home leading to resolution of the source of family-work conflict. Pilots fly for a day and legally they are bound to have 12 hours of rest at home. However, it is a norm for pilots to have rest in the country they have last fown to. If the pilots spend 12 hours at home base rather than last base flown to; they’d be able  to juggle better in work roles and family roles.

            This study was conducted on commercial pilots. In order to have a better perception of aviators in general; General aviation pilots should also be included. The results cannot be generalized to aviators at a macro level. Moreover, this study has been conducted cross-sectionally and should be conducted longitudinally knowing that there are peak seasons where the number off flights are on the rise (i.e. Holiday season).


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