Periodicity.: July - September 2013
e-ISSN......: 2236-269X
Cover Image

Identifying Organizational Inefficiencies with Pictorial Process Analysis (PPA)

David John Patrishkoff


Pictorial Process Analysis (PPA) was created by the author in 2004. PPA is a unique methodology which offers ten layers of additional analysis when compared to standard process mapping techniques.  The goal of PPA is to identify and eliminate waste, inefficiencies and risk in manufacturing or transactional business processes at 5 levels in an organization. The highest level being assessed is the process management, followed by the process work environment, detailed work habits, process performance metrics and general attitudes towards the process. This detailed process assessment and analysis is carried out during process improvement brainstorming efforts and Kaizen events. PPA creates a detailed visual efficiency rating for each step of the process under review.  A selection of 54 pictorial Inefficiency Icons (cards) are available for use to highlight major inefficiencies and risks that are present in the business process under review. These inefficiency icons were identified during the author's independent research on the topic of why things go wrong in business. This paper will highlight how PPA was developed and show the steps required to conduct Pictorial Process Analysis on a sample manufacturing process. The author has successfully used PPA to dramatically improve business processes in over 55 different industries since 2004.



process mapping, business process management, business process reengineering

Full Text:



BOSSIDY, L. (2002) Execution – The Discipline of Getting Things Done, Crown Business / Random House, NY

BRANDT, N. (2003) Chicago Death Trap: The Iroquois Theatre Fire Of 1903, Southern Illinois University Press, Southern Illinois University Press, Chicago, Ill

BUNKER, F. G.; GILBRETH, L. M. (1921) Process Charts. American Society of Mechanical Engineers

COLLINS, J. (2001), Good to Great, Harper Business, NY

DEMING, W. E. (1982) Out of the Crisis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

DIKOTTER, F. (2010) Mao's Great Famine, Walker Publishing Company, NY

GEHMAN, H. (2003) Columbia Accident Investigation Board, Washington, DC

GILBRETH, F. (1921) Process Charts, ASME, NY

GRAHAM, B.; REILLY, W. (2012) Deep Water - The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future, Report to the President, National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, Washington, DC

JURAN, J. M. (1988) Juran on Planning for Quality, Free Press, New York, NY, USA

KAPLAN, R. S.; NORTON, D. P. (1992) "The Balanced Scorecard", Harvard Business Review Jan – Feb, 1992

KESWANI, R. (1984) Wake up people of Bhopal, you are on the edge of a volcano!, Hindi Jansatta daily,, Bhopali, India

MCCARTY, J. (2008) What Really Sank the Titanic, Citadel Press, NY

NTSB - National Transportation Safety Board, (2002) Loss of Control and Impact with Pacific Ocean Alaska Airlines Flight 261 McDonnell Douglas MD-83, Washington, DC

OHNO, T. (1988) Toyota Production System, Productivity Press, Portland, Oregon

OKTAY, J. (2012) Grounded Theory, Oxford Press, NY

PATRISHKOFF, D.D (2010) Training in PPA & E3 Extreme Enterprise Efficiency:

PATRISHKOFF, D. (2012) Pictorial Process Analysis (PPA), Paper presented for the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ICIEOM’2012), Guimarães, Portugal

PATRISHKOFF, D. (2013) Breaking the Barriers to Greatness, Slideshare,

ROGERS, W. (1986) Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Washington, DC

SHINGO, S. (1986) Zero quality control: The Poka-yoke System, Productivity Press, Portland, Oregon

SMITH, A. (1976) The Wealth of Nations, The Works and Correspondence of Adam Smith, Scotland

TAYLOR, F. W. (1911) The Principles of Scientific Management, Harper and Bros., New York, NY

The USS Indianapolis Story, (1998),

WANDER, S. NASA Safety Center, (2008) System Failure Case Studies - That Sinking Feeling (Petrobras 36 Oil Rig sinking), v. 2, n. 8

WELCH, JACK (2001) Jack - Straight from the Gut, Warner Books, NY

WOMACK, J. P. (1996) Lean Thinking, Simon & Schuster, NY

XINHAU CHINA NEWS AGENCY, (2005), After 30 years, secrets, lessons of China's worst dams burst accident surface,, China


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)


Logo Gaudeamus






Logo Kennedy

Logo Columbia

Logo UCS


Logo OPT

Logo Biblioteca Professor Milton Cabral Moreira

Logo UFL